SAIL VOLUME i

                                                             2. AMERICAN-BUILT CLIPPER SHIPS

                         FLYING CLOUD (1851-1874), 1782 tons , length 225ft,. beam 40ft 8ins.  Constructed of soft wood
                         and built and designed by Donald McKay at his East Boston yard.  Purchased by the Grinnell, Minturn & Co,
                         she made a record breaking maiden voyage to San Francisco from New York around Cape Horn in 89days
                         21 hours - clocking a daily average of of 222 statute miles. She then crossed the Pacific to get a return
                         cargo of tea and back to New York.  She made six voyages of this pattern in which it emerged that she
                         was extremely fast in good winds but relatively slow in the light winds. In the depression of 1856/57, she
                         was laid up at New York for two and a half years.  She was sold, and sent to London in December 1859
                         from where she made a voyage to China and back.  She then made a voyage to Melbourne in 85 days,
                         then to China and back to London. She was up for sale again and  in 1863 the vessel was purchased by
                         James Baines of Liverpool to carry emigrants to Queensland.  In the early 1870's she was sold again.  
                         In 1874 she was stranded on the coast of New Brunswick and caught fire while under repairs.  Like all
                         of the softwood sailing ships her performance fell off after five years as the timber soaked with water
                         and was strained. 

                         SOVEREIGN OF THE SEAS (1852 - 1859), 2421 tons burthen (American register), length 265ft,
                         beam 44ft.. Of soft wood construction,she was built on spec by Donald McKay at his East Bosto yard.  
                         His aim was to build a vessel that could out perform FLYING CLOUD and her spar plan was a size
                         larger than any previous clipper. Her maiden voyage to San Francisco was a success and she returned
                         with a cargo sperm oil from Honolulu. Her next voyage with Donald McKay on board was to Liverpool
                         and this was accomplished from the Newfoundland Banks in 5 days 17 hours - beating a Cunard
                         steamship in the process.  In September 1853 she sailed for Melbourne which she reached in 77 days.
                         Her return journey with a consignment of gold-dust and problems with the crew was accomplished in 68
                         days.  The vessel was the sold to the Hamburg firm of J.C.Godeffroy & Co. In her first voyage under
                         her new owners to Shanghai she stuck on the bar and had to be lightened and on her retur journey
                         cholera affected nearly half her crew  In 1859, on the outward voyage to China she ran on to the Pyramid
                         shoals at the south-east.end of the Straits of Malacca and was a total loss.  

                         DREADNOUGHT (1853-1869), 1,400 tons, length 200ft, beam 39f t, depth 26ft.  Of wood construction,
                         she was designed designed by Currier & Townshend at Newburyport, Massachusetts.  She was built for
                         hard driving in the Atlantic packet trade and under Captain Samuels earned the nickname "the Wild Boat of
                         the Atlantic".  She sailed in the Atlanti packet trade for ten  years. In 1864, with steamships taking over the
                         North Atlantic trade, the ship was put into the Cape Horn  trade to San Francisco.  In 1869, the ship left
                         New York bound for San Francisco.  While making for the Straits of La Maireth the ship got close to the
                         rocky coast of Tierra del Fuego.   The wind dropped, the ship lost way and the swell drew her onto the rocks.

                         RED JACKET (1853-1882), 2,305 tons, length overall 260ft, beam 44ft, depth 31ft   Of softwood
                         construction, deigned by Samuel A. Pook of Boston and built by George Taylor of Rockland, Maine.
                         Her first owners were Seacomb & Taylor. The name Red Jacket came from the Seneca Chief of the
                         Wolf Clan who worked as a scout for the British in the War of Independence and was presented with
                         a British soldier's red jacket.  The ship's figurehead was representation of him. The vessel sailed in early
                         1854 to Liverpool.  The vessel  was chartered  by Pilkington & Wilson's White Star Line to carry
                         emigrants to Melbourne - it was the during the Gold Rush.in Australia.  She left Liverpool in May 1854
                         and reached Melbourne (Rock Light to Port Phillip Heads) in 69 days 13 hours 15 minutes.  She had
                         been under sail for 67 days 13 hours. On her return she was bought immediately for the White Star Line.  
                         A rivalry had also developed with  LIGHTNING which had been purchased by James Baines' Black
                         Ball Line. RED JACKET was on the Melbourne run unti 1869.. About 1870, with her hull water
                         soaked, she was sold into the Quebec timber trade. In 1882, she became a coal hulk at Cape Verde.    

                         LIGHTNING (1854-1869), 1,468 tons, length 244 ft, beam44 ft. depth 23ft. Of wood construction,
                         designed and built by Donald McKay at his East Boston yard for James Baines' Black Ball Line.  One
                         of three clippers (LIGHTNING, CHAMPION OF THE SEAS, and JAMES BAINES) built by
                         Mckay in 1854and a fourth (DONALD MCKAY) in 1855 for the Black Ball Line, LIGHTNING was
                         of extreme clipper design with a concave bow. She was fast:in strong steady wind and twice made 24
                         hour runs at an average of 18 knots. She was not so good in light airs. Her first five  voyages to
                         Melbourne were in: 76 days,  In 1857 (along with JAMES BAINES and CHAMPION OF THE SEAS)
                         she carried troops to India because of the Mutiny.  Subsequently, she made twelve voyages to Melbourne.  
                         In 1869,preparing to leave after loading wool at Geelong, flames burst from her fore hold.  She was
                         towed off from the wharf and eventually scuttled.

                         JAMES BAINES (1854 - 1858), 2,275 tons, length 266ft, beam 44ft 9in, depth  29ft.  Consructed of
                         wood, designed and built by Donald McKay, East Boston..  Slightly fuller in design than  LIGHTNING.  
                         Her first voyage to Melbourne was in a record 63 days. In 1857, the JAMES BAINES, LIGHTNING
                         and many others carried troops to India following the outbreak of the Mutiny. She returned with a cargo
                         of jute, linseed, rice and cow hides. In  April 1858, several days after docking in Liverpool a fire in the
                         cargo not yet discharged took hold and destroyed the vessel..